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Reference Library

ASFP Resources & References

Pedal Evidence

Ansert, E., Santamarina, G., Merrill, T., and Houseworth J. (2017). Forensic Podiatry: A Brief Compendium. The Podiatry Institute, 47-51.


Barker, S. L., Scheuer, J. L. (1998). Predictive value of human footprints in a forensic context. Medicine, science and the law, 38(4), 341-346.


Birch, I., Birch, M., & Asgeirsdottir, N. (2020). The identification of individuals by observational gait analysis using closed circuit television footage: Comparing the ability and confidence of experienced and non-experienced analysts. Science & Justice, 60(1), 79-85.


Birch, I., Birch, M., & Lall, J. (2021). The accuracy and validity of the Sheffield Features of Gait Tool. Science & Justice, 61(1), 72-78.


Birch, I., Gwinnett, C., & Walker, J. (2018). Aiding the interpretation of forensic gait analysis: Development of a features of gait database. Science & Justice, 58(1), 78-82.


Birch, I., Vernon, W., Walker, J., & Young, M. (2015). Terminology and forensic gait analysis. Science & Justice, 55(4), 279-284.


Birch, I., Vernon, W., Walker, J., & Saxelby, J. (2013). The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 20(7), 915-917.


Burrow, J. G. (2016). The use of the Podotrack in forensic podiatry for collection and analysis of bare footprints using the Reel method of measurement. Science & Justice, 56(3), 216-222.


Burrow, J. G. (2017). A comparison between manual and digital measurements in exemplar bare footprint analysis. Int. J. of Forens. Sci, 2, 000116.

Crowther, M., Reidy, S., Walker, J., Islam, M., & Thompson, T. (2021). Application of non-contact scanning to forensic podiatry: A feasibility study. Science & Justice, 61(1), 79-88.


Curran, M., Gillespie, L., Melville, S., Campbell, J., Kagan, B. (2019). Estimating actual foot size from a static bare foot print in a White British Population. Science & Justice, 59(3), 317-321.


DiMaggio, John A.: “Prints of Thieves”, BioMechanics Magazine, Vol.IX, Number 3/March 2002:16-26.


DiMaggio, John A.,“Forensic Podiatry- Part Two” Evidence Technology Magazine, Volume 6, Number3, May-June 2008.


DiMaggio, John A., “Forensic Podiatry- Part One” Evidence Technology Magazine, Volume 6, Number2, March-April 2008.


DiMaggio, John A.: The Emerging Science of Forensic Podiatry, Podiatry Management Magazine, pp14-151, August 2005.


Geradts, Z., & Riphagen, Q. (2023). Interpol review of forensic video analysis. 2019–2022. Forensic Science International: Synergy, 6, 100309.


Giles, E. and Vallandigham, P. H. ,  “Height Estimation from Foot and Shoe-print Length,” Journal of Forensic Sciences,JFSCA, Vol. 36, No. 4, July 1991, pp. 1134-1151.


Gordon, C. C. and Buikstra, J. E., “Linear Models for the Prediction of Stature and Boot Dimensions,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFSCA, Vol. 37, No. 3, May 1992,  pp. 771-782.


Gunn, D.P.M., N., “Old and New Methods of Evaluating Footprint Impressions by a Forensic Podiatrist,”British Journal of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, 3(3), 8-11, 1991.

Howsam, N., Bridgen, A. (2018). A comparative study of standing fleshed foot and walking and jumping bare footprint measurements. Science & Justice, 58(5), 346-354.

Kanchan, T., Krishan, K., Shyamsundar, S., Aparna, K. R., & Jaiswal, S. (2012). Analysis of footprint and its parts for stature estimation in Indian population. The foot, 22(3), 175-180.

Kennedy, R. B. (2005). Ongoing research into barefoot impression evidence. In Rich, J., Dean, D.E., Powers R.H., (Eds.). Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity: Human Identification and Trauma Analysis of the Thigh, Leg, and Foot (pp. 401-13).


Kennedy, R.B., Sanping C., et al. (2005b). A large-scale statistical analysis of barefoot impressions. Journal of Forensic Science, Vol. 50, No. 5, p. 1071-1080.


Kennedy, R. B., & Yamashita, A. B. Barefoot morphology comparisons: a summary. Journal of Forensic Identification, 57(3), 383, 2007.


Krishan, K. (2007). Individualizing characteristics of footprints in Gujjars of north India—forensic aspects. Forensic science International, 169(2-3), 137-144.


Krishan, K., Kanchan, T., & DiMaggio, J. A. (2015). Emergence of forensic podiatry—a novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences. Forensic science International, 255, 16-27.


Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2015). Identification: Prints-Footprints. In Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine: Second Edition (pp. 81-91). Elsevier Inc..


Kushwaha, R., Nain, N., & Singal, G. (2017, December). Detailed analysis of footprint geometry for person identification. In 2017 13th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS) (pp. 229-236). IEEE.


Krishan, MSc, PhD, Kewal and Sharma, MSc.Abhilasha, “Estimation of Stature from Dimensions of Hands and Feet in a North Indian Population” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 14 (2007) 327-332,


Krishan, MSc PhD. Kewal, “Estimation of Stature from Footprint and Foot Outline Dimensions in Gujjars of North India”,Forensic Science International 175 (2008) 93-101.


Krishan, MSc PhD, Kewal, “Establishing Correlation of Footprints with Body Weight-Forensic Aspects” Forensic Science International 179 (2008) 63-69.


Laskowski, G.E. and Kyle, V.L., “Barefoot Impressions – A Preliminary Study of Identification Characteristics and Population Frequency of their Morphological Features,”Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 2, March 1988, pp. 378-388.


Lee, Daewook, Jiman Soon, Gyuri Choi, Kijoon Kim, and Sangwoo Bahn. Identification of the Visually Prominent Gait Parameters for Forensic Gait Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 4 (2022): 2467.

Lucock, MChS, L. J., “Identification from Footwear,” Medicine Science and the Law, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1979, pp. 225-230.

Massey, S. L. (2004). Persistence of creases of the foot and their value for forensic identification purposes. Journal of Forensic Identification, 54(3), 296.


Mukhra, R., Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2018). Bare footprint metric analysis methods for comparison and identification in forensic examinations: A review of literature. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 58, 101-112.

Mukhra, R., Krishan, K., Nirenberg, M. S., Ansert, E., & Kanchan, T. (2020). Comparative analysis of static and dynamic bare footprint dimensions in a north Indian population. Forensic science international, 308, 110169.

Naples, V. L., & Miller, J. S. (2004). Making tracks: the forensic analysis of footprints and footwear impressions. The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists, 279(1), 9-15.


Nirenberg, M., Ansert, E., Campbell, J., & Curran, M. (2020). Chasing ghosts: An investigation of the ghosting phenomenon in footprints. Science & Justice, 60(5), 432-437.


Nirenberg, M., Ansert, E., Campbell, J., & Curran, M. (2020). Forensic implications of foot arch index comparison between dynamic bare footprints and shoe insole foot impressions. Science & justice: journal of the Forensic Science Society, 60(4), 375-380.


Nirenberg, M. S., Ansert, E., Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2019). Two-dimensional metric comparison between dynamic bare and sock-clad footprints for its forensic implications–A pilot study. Science & Justice, 59(1), 46-51.


Nirenberg, M. S., Ansert, E., Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2019). Two-dimensional linear analysis of dynamic bare footprints: A comparison of measurement techniques. Science & Justice, 59(5), 552-557.


Nirenberg, M. S., Ansert, E., Krishan, K., & Kanchan, T. (2020). Two-dimensional metric comparisons between dynamic bare footprints and insole foot impressions-forensic implications. Science & Justice, 60(2), 145-150.


Nirenberg M.S., Ansert E., Reel S. Reliability of a two-dimensional sock-clad footprint linear measurement method. Science & Justice, 2021 Sep 1;61(5):649-56.


Nirenberg, M. S., Saxelby, J., Vernon, R., & Vernon, W. (2020). The Application of Forensic Podiatry to Clinical Practice. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 110(2).


Nirenberg, M., Vernon, W., & Birch, I. (2018). A review of the historical use and criticisms of gait analysis evidence. Science & Justice, 58(4), 292-298.

Nirenberg, D. P. M., Michael S., “Forensic Methods and the Podiatric Physician,” Journal of the American Podiatry Society,Vol. 79, No. 5, May 1989, pp. 247-252.

Reel, S., Rouse, S., Vernon, W., & Doherty, P. (2010). Reliability of a two-dimensional footprint measurement approach. Science & Justice, 50(3), 113-118.


Reel, S. M. L. (2012). Development and evaluation of a valid and reliable footprint measurement approach in forensic identification (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds).


Rossi, D.P.M., William A. Podometrics: A New Methodology for Foot Typing. Contemporary Podiatric Physician, November 1992, pp. 28-39.


Seckiner, Dilan, Xanthé Mallett, Philip Maynard, Didier Meuwly, and Claude Roux. Forensic gait analysis—Morphometric assessment from surveillance footage. Forensic science international 296 (2019): 57-66.

Smerecki, C. J., Lovejoy, O.C. Identification via pedal morphology. The Police Chief 51, no. 4 (1984): 52-54.


Smith, PhD, Shelley L., Attribution of Foot Bones to Sex and Population Groups. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1997; 42(2); 186-195.

Vernon, W. (2015). The Use of Chiropody/Podiatry Records in Forensic and Mass Disaster Identification. Journal of Forensic Identification, 65(4), 539.


Vernon, W., Simmonite, N, Reel, S., Reidy, S., An investigation into the cause of the inner dark areas and outer lighter areas (ghosting) seen in dynamically-created two-dimensional bare footprints. Science & Justice 57, no. 4 (2017): 276-282.


Vernon, W., Reel, S., & Howsam, N. (2020). Examination and Interpretation of Bare Footprints in Forensic Investigations. Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science, 10, 1-14.


Vernon, W. (2006). The development and practice of forensic podiatry. Journal of clinical forensic medicine, 13(6-8), 284-287.

Vernon, DPodM, D. W. and McCourt, F. J.  “Forensic Podiatry – a review and definition,” British Journal of Podiatry, 2(2), 45-48, 1999.


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Forensic Podiatry / Pedal Evidence

DiMaggio, John. A. Vernon, Wesley Forensic Podiatry - Principles and Methods, Second Edition, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2017. Available HERE.

Birch, Ivan, Michael Nirenberg, Wesley Vernon, and Maria Birch. Forensic Gait Analysis: Principles and Practice. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2020. Available HERE.

Rich DPM, Jeremy, Dean MD, Dorothy E., Powers PhD. Forensic Medicine of the Lower Extremity. Humana Press, CT., February 2005.


Thompson, Tim and Black, Sue, Forensic Human Identification – An Introduction. CRC Press, 2007.  

Associated Subjects to Forensic Podiatry

Abbott, John.  Footwear Evidence.  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1964.


Bodziak, William J.  Footwear Impression Evidence. Second Edition,New York: Elsevier, 2000.


Cassidy, M.J.  Footwear Identification. Salem, Ore: Lightning Powder Co., 1995.


Donatelli, Robert.  The Biomechanics of the Foot and Ankle. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis, 1990.


Eckert, William G.  Introduction to Forensic Sciences.  2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1997


Fisher, Barry A.J.  Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation, CRC Press, 7th Edition, 2004.

Goonetilleke, RS., ed. The science of footwear. CRC Press, 2012.


Haglund, Wm. D. and Sorg, Marcella H.  Forensic Taphonomy. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1997.


Hilderbrand, Dwane S.  Footwear, the Missed Evidence. Temecula, CA: Staggs, 2007.


Perry, Jacquelin.  Gait Analysis – Normal and Pathologic Function.  Thorofare, N.J.: Slack Inc., 1992.


Pickering, Robert B. and Bachman, David C.  The Use of Forensic Anthropology.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc., 1997.


Rathbun, TA., Buikstra, JE. Human Identification. Charles C. Thomas, 1984.

Robbins, L. M.  Footprints: Collection, Analysis and Interpretation.  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1985.


Root, Merton L. Orien, William P. and Weed, John H.  Normal and Abnormal Function of the Foot.  Vol. 2, LosAngeles: Clinical Biomechanics Corporation, 1997.


Rossi, D.P.M., William A. and Tennant, D.P.M., Ross.  Professional Shoe Fitting, New York: National Shoe Retailers Association, 1984.


Saferstein, Richard.  Forensic Science-From the Crime Scene to the Crime Lab: Pearson Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2009.


Sarrafian, Shahan K.  Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1983.


Ubelacker, Douglas.  Bones – A Forensic Detectives Casebook.  New York: Harper Collins, 1992.


Valmassy, Ronald L.  Clinical Biomechanics of the Lower Extremity. St. Louis: Mosby – Year Book, Inc., 1996.

Vanderkolk, J. (2009). Forensic comparative science: qualitative quantitative source determination of unique impressions, images, and objects. Elsevier Academic Press.

Legal / Expert Witness

Sacks, Michael E.  An Overview of the Law: A Guide for Testifying and Consulting Experts.  Danvers, MA: LRP Publications, 1995


Feder HA and M Houck, Succeeding as an Expert Witness. 4th edition. CRC Press; Boca Raton, FL.2008


Black, Henry Campbell. Black’s Law Dictionary.  Abridged 6th ed. St. Paul, MN: West, 1991


Cantor, J.D., Benjamin J. The Role of the Expert Witness in a Court Trial.  Belmont, MA: Legal Evidence Photography Seminars,



Rabinof, Marc A. and Holmes, Stephen P.  The Forensic Expert’s Guide to Litigation.  Danvers, MA: LRP Publications, 1996.


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